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English : Grammar

Concordance / Agreement

Strategic-Cooperation-Agreement

Concordance (Agreement) adalah persesuaian antara subjek dengan predikatnya.

Beberapa Kaidah Dalam Agreements

A. Agreement Antara Subjek dan Kata Kerjanya


Apabila subjek-nya plural (jamak), maka kata kerjanya harus juga plural.

  • They are very excited this day.
  • The boys often come on time at school.
  • We have studied hard to pass the exam.

Apabila subjeknya singular (tunggal), maka kata kerjanya harus juga singular.

  • He learns English every day.
  • My bike has been stolen.
  • The girl is very exited.

Apabila dua subjek atau lebih dihubungkan dengan “and”, maka kata kerjanya harus plural.

  • The manager and staffs are having a meeting now.
  • Tia and Haikal usually go to school by bus.
  • My brother and I take a vacation.
  • My parents were not at the house last week.

Apabila dua kata benda yang berfungsi sebagai subjek dihubungkan dengan “and”, dan menunjukkan singular person atau membentuk sebuah kesatuan makna, maka subjek tersebut berarti singular; oleh karena itu kata kerjanya harus juga singular.

  • Truth and honesty is the best policy.
  • The poet and statesman is coming here.

Catatan:

Namun apabila sebelum “statesmen” ada “the“, maka berarti plural, oleh karena itu kata kerjanya harus plural yaitu “are”. Jadi,

  • The poet and the statesman are coming here.
  • Bread and butter is served for our breakfast.
  • The stars and stripes flies overhead.

Apabila subjek adalah Collective Noun, singular dalam bentuknya, tetapi yang dimaksudkan plural, maka verb-nya harus juga plural, dan sebaliknya jika yang dimaksudkan singular maka verb-nya harus juga singular.

Beberapa contoh Collective Noun:

  • congress, family, group, class, organization, team, army, committee, government, jury, club, public, dll

Contoh:

  • The committee were unable to agree. (Maksud dari kalimat ini berarti untuk masing-masing anggota, maka kata kerjanya harus jamak).
  • The soccer team wins the tournament. (Subjek kalimat ini menjadi satu kesatuan makna, bukan perseorangan, maka kata kerjanya harus tunggal).
  • The family have to give their vote. (jamak)
  • The jury agrees on a verdict. (tunggal)

Apabila dua atau lebih subjek kalimat yang tunggal digabungkan dengan:

  • either … or
  • neither … nor
  • not only … but also

Maka verb-nya menyesuaikan dengan subjek yang disebut di akhir, bukan di awal.

Contoh:

  • Either John or his friends are very busy today.
  • Not only Robert but also my parents are in the office.
  • Neither my brothers nor Bob is going to class today.
  • Either my parents or his friend is busy today.
  • Not only my friends but also my cousin is in the office.

Apabila kita menjumpai frasa atau kalimat yang diapit oleh “koma, maka anggap saja frasa atau kalimat itu tidak ada dan tidak mempengaruhi kata kerja sesudahnya.

  • of – together with – from – accompanied by – with – in addition to – between – along with – among – as well as – including

Contoh:

  • Bambang, as well as his two cousins, calls me every day. (as well as his two cousin dianggap tidak ada). Jadi sepertinya kalimat aslinya adalah : Bambang calls me every day.
  • My two aunts, along with their cat, visit me on Sunday. (=My two aunts visit me on Sunday)
  • New York, together with 47 other states, votes for president. (= New York votes for president)
  • Mr. Hunt, accompanied by his wife and children, is arriving tonight. (=Mr Huntn is arriving tonight)

Apabila Indefinite Pronouns berikut ini menjadi subjek, maka verb-nya selalu singular.

  • each – somebody – anything – everybody – someone – everything – everyone – no one – another – anyone – nothing – either – anybody – much – neither – dll.

Contoh:

  • Nobody works harder than John does.
  • Either is likely to be fired.
  • Either of the available seats is very close to the stage.

Apabila Pronouns berikut ini menjadi subjek, maka verb-nya harus selalu dalam bentuk plural.

  • both – few – many – others – several

Contoh:

  • Many people write a good novel.
  • Others have tried this lock but no one has succeeded.
  • Both were anxious to receive the award.

Apabila Indefinite Pronouns berikut ini menjadi subjek, maka verb-nya dapat dalam bentuk singular atau plural, tergantung dari kata benda yang terletak sesudah “of”.

  • all – none – enough – most – a lot – any – some – more – part

most of the

+

Plural
Countable Nouns

+

Plural Verbs

some of the

part of the

all of the

Contoh:

  • Half of the pies are left.
  • Part of the books are interesting.
  • All of the women have brought gifts.

most of the

+

Singular
Uncountable Nouns

+

Singular Verbs

some of the

part of the

all of the

Contoh:

  • All of the gasoline has been sold.
  • Part of the book was interesting.
  • Most of the money was saved.

Keterangan:

None dan No : Dapat diikuti oleh singular atau plural, tergantung pada noun yang mengikutinya.

  • None of the conterfeit money has been found.
  • None of the students have finished the exam yet.
  • No example is difficult for you.
  • No teachers go on strike.

“a number of + Plural Nouns + Singular Verbs” dan “the number of + Plural Nouns + Plural Verbs”

Contoh:

  • The number of people in the room is ninety-two.
  • A number of people have enrolled this course.
  • A large number of applicants are already here.
  • The number of days in a week is seven.

Apabila kata-kata berikut ini menjadi subjek, maka verb-nya selalu tunggal.

  • clothing – economics – equipment – scenery – mumps – news – Philippines – furniture – behaviour – knowledge – traffic – ethics – civics – athletics – dll

Contoh:

  • The news is important.
  • Economics was widely used.
  • Knowledge is power.
  • Statistics was my favorite subject in college.

Apabila kata-kata (noun) berikut ini menjadi subjek, maka verb-nya selalu dalam bentuk plural.

  • belongings – proceeds – tactics – clothes – remains – thanks – goods – riches – wages
  • pants – scissors – trousers – pliers – suds – tongs – shorts – jeans – glasses

Contoh:

  • These scissors cut through heavy cardboard.
  • Tim’s clothes are on the bed; his pants, however, are in the closet.
  • My new pliers grip firmly.
  • The tactics she employed were highly effective.

Beberapa Noun berikut ini digunakan untuk menunjukkan group/kelompok hewan tertentu yang mempunyai kesamaan dalam jenisnya, sehingga dianggap singular, maka verb-nya harus singular.

  • flock of birds, school of fish, herd of cattle, pack of dogs, pride of lions, troop of lions, dll.

Contoh:

  • The herd of cattle is breaking away.
  • The school of fish is being attached by sharks.
  • The flock of birds is circling overhead.

Apabila “every”, “many a” dan “each” digunakan sebelum subjek, maka verb-nya selalu singular.

Contoh:

  • Every boy and girl on the team is a top student.
  • Many a worker looks forward to the weekend.
  • Each window and door was locked securely.

Apabila sebuah kalimat dimulai dengan gerund (verb + ing), maka verb-nya selalu singular.

Contoh:

  • Not studying has caused him many problem.
  • Writing many letters makes he happy.
  • Dancing is very popular today.

“Here” dan “There” bukan tergolong subjek. subjek kalimat yang diawali dengan “here” dan “there” terletak sesudah verb-nya, maka verb-nya harus menyesuaikan dengan subjek yang ada.

Contoh:

  • Here is your book.
  • Here are your books.
  • There has been an increase in the import of foreign cars.
  • There are soldiers in the battle field.

Kata benda berikut ini berasal dari bahasa Latin dan dalam bentuk plural, maka verb-nya selalu plural.

  • alumni – larvae – radii – criteria – alumnae – minutiae – stimuli – data – agenda – phenomena – synopses – vertebrae

Contoh:

  • Your criteria are valid for judging these data.
  • The alumni of Oxford University come to the meeting.

Bila suatu bilangan pecahan atau persentase digunakan sebagai subjek, maka verbnya dapat berbentuk singular atau plural, tergantung pada kata benda yang terletak sesudah “of”.

Contoh:

  • Two-fifths of our profits go to reinvestment.
  • Three-fourths of the house is now ready.
  • Fifty percent of his crop is soy beans.
  • Twenty-five percent of the students work after school.

Bila subjek kalimat berupa judul buku, artikel, film, drama dan lain-lain, dan nama perusahaan, negara Berta organisasi, maka predikat (verb-nya) selalu singular meskipun kelihatannya subjek itu plural.

Contoh:

  • The immigrants is a fine Bergman film.
  • The Netherlands is located in Western Europe.
  • Passages, by Gail Sheeky, won the best seller list for months.
  • General Motors Company has declared a deviden.
  • The Girl Scouts has its headquaters near my office.

Bila subjek berupa Frasa Kata Depan, maka predikatnya menyesuaikan dengan kata yang terletak sebelum “of”.

Contoh:

  • The study of languages is very interesting.
  • Several theories on this subject have been proposed.
  • The view of these disciplines varies from time to time.
  • The danger of forest fires is not to be taken lightly.
  • The effects of that crimes are likely to be devastating.
  • The cost of new houses is rising every day.

Bila subjek kalimatnya berupa kata sifat yang ditambah dengan “the”, maka predikat (verb)-nya selalu dalam bentuk plural.

Contoh:

  • The unemployed are losing hope.
  • The poor are trying to find the aid.
  • The rich have collected money for the blind.

Baca juga :

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