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English : Grammar

Prepositions

Preposition

Prepositions adalah kata depan atau preposisi yang letaknya selalu di depan noun (nomina) atau pronoun (pronomina), dan digunakan untuk menjelaskan hubungan antar kata dalam kalimat. Preposisi tidak dapat diikuti verba. Tetapi jika akan menggunakan verba sebagai preposisi, maka verba tersebut harus menggunakan bentuk -ing (gerund). Dan nomina atau pronomina yang mengikuti preposisi di sebut objek preposisi.

Berikut ini adalah preposisi yang sering digunakan:
about, above, across, after, against, along, amid, around, as, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, but, by, despite, down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like, near, of, off, on, onto, opposite, out, outside, over, past, since, through, toward, under, underneath, until, upon, with, within.

Contoh penggunaan preposisi dalam kalimat:
– She knew a lot about food.
– Z comes after Y in the alphabet
.
– Don’t come near me.
– He set the tray upon the table.
– The town has been under attack by rebel groups for a week now.

Dalam kalimat, preposisi dapat berfungsi sebagai prepositions of time (preposisi waktu), prepositions of place (preposisi tempat), dan prepositions of movement (preposisi pergerakan).

Prepostion of Place

Prepositions of place adalah kata depan atau preposisi yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan suatu letak, tempat atau posisi suatu nomina. Preposisi yang sering dipakai adalah at, in, dan on.

Prepositions of place (at, in, on):
at untuk menunjukkan posisi, letak, alamat yang jelas (point)
in untuk menunjukkan tempat (dalam ruang), nama kota, negara dsb. (enclosed space)
on untuk menunjukkan tempat di atas permukaan atau nama jalan (surface)

at (point): at the corner, at the door, at the the top of the page, at the entrance, at the crossroads, at 123 Majapahit Road in Surabaya etc.

in (enclosed space): in Surabaya, in the garden, in a box, in my pocket, in a building etc.

on (surface): on the wall, on the door, on the cover, on the menu, on a page, on Majapahit Road etc.

Contoh prepositions of place dalam kalimat:
– Jane is waiting for you at the bus stop.
– My plane stopped at Dubai and Hanoi and arrived in Bangkok two hours late.

– When will you arrive at the office?
– Do you work in an office?
– I have a meeting in New York.
– The author’s name is on the cover of the book.
– There are no prices on this menu.
– I live on the 7th floor at 21 Oxford Street in London.

Berikut di bawah ini frase preposisi at, in, on yang menunjukkan lokasi (prepositions of locations) yang sering digunakan.
at: at home, at work, at school, at university, at the top, at reception, at class, at the office etc.
in: in a car, in a lift, in the newspaper, in the sky, in a row, in Oxford street, in bed, in the bedroom, in (the) class, in the library etc.
on: on a bus, on a train, on a bicycle, on a horse, on the radio, on television, on the left, on the way, on the plane etc.

Preposition of Time

Prepositions of time adalah kata depan atau preposisi yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan waktu. Preposisi yang sering dipakai adalah at, in, dan on.

Prepositions of time (at, in, on):
at untuk menunjukkan waktu tertentu yang pasti atau tepat (precise time), misalnya: at 3 0’clock, at 10.30 am, at sunset, at noon, at the moment etc.
in untuk menyatakan bulan, tahun, abad, atau satuan waktu yang panjang (months, years, centuries, and long periods), misalnya: in June, in summer, in 1998, in the past/future, in the Dark Age etc.
on untuk hari dan tanggal (days and dates), misalnya: on Sunday, on Friday, on 30 April, on Independence Day, on her birthday etc.

Contoh prepositions of time dalam kalimat:
– I have a meeting at 9 am.
– The shop closes at midnight.
– There should be a lot of progress in the next century.
– Do you work on Mondays?
– Her birthday is on 30 April.

Berikut ini frase preposisi at, in, on yang sering digunakan.
at: at night, at the weekend, at the same time, at present, at Christmas, at Lebaran.
in: in the morning, in the mornings, in the afternoon(s), in the evening(s).

on: on Tuesday morning, on Saturday mornings, on Sunday afternoons, on Monday evening.

At, in, on tidak digunakan bersama dengan last, next, every, dan this.
I went to Jakarta last April. (bukan in last April)
He’s coming back next Friday. (bukan on next Friday)
I go home every Lebaran. (bukan at every Lebaran)
We’ll call you this morning. (bukan in this morning)

Selain preposisi at, in, dan on, preposisi for dan since juga digunakan untuk menunjukkan jangka waktu tertentu.

Prepositions of time (for and since):
for untuk menyatakan ukuran waktu atau seberapa lama suatu aktivitas dilakukan
since dipakai untuk ukuran waktu yang menyatakan sejak kapan suatu aktivitas dilakukan.

Contoh preposisi for dan since dalam kalimat:
– He held his breath for seven minutes.
– She’s lived there for seven years.

– He’s worked here since 1970.
– She’s been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty.

Preposition of Movement

Prepositions of movement adalah kata depan atau preposisi yang dipakai untuk menunjukkan suatu aktivitas atau gerakan yang mengarah pada suatu benda atau tempat. Kata depan yang biasa digunakan adalah to dan towards atau toward.

Contoh:
– They were driving to work together.
– She’s going to the dentist’s office this morning.

– We’re moving towards the light.
– This is a big step towards the project’s completion.

Preposisi tidak digunakan pada home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs, upstairs. Kata-kata ini biasa disebut dengan istilah no preposition.
– I walked upstairs and unlocked my front door.
– Grandpa went home.

– They both went outside.

Towards umum dipakai pada British English, sedangkan toward umum dipakai pada American English.

Demikian sekilas memahami apa itu prepostion, anda bisa menyimak lebih jauh tentang penjelasan Prepostion of Time dan Preposition of Place, silahkan anda klik pada link video youtube berikut :

1. Prepostion of time :

2. Preposition of place :

Source : catatanbahasainggris.blogspot.com, youtube.com

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