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English : Grammar

Adjective (Kata Sifat)

Adjectives (Kata Sifat) adalah kata-kata yang menerangkan kata benda (nouns) atau kata ganti (pronouns). Adjective dapat diletakkan sebelum kata benda (I like Chinese food) atau setelah kata kerja tertentu (It is hard). Kita juga dapat meletakkan lebih dari satu di depan kata benda (a beautiful young French lady).

Pembagian Kata Sifat (Adjectives)

  1. Quality Adjectives
  2. Possessive Adjectives
  3. Demonstrative Adjectives
  4. Interrogative Adjectives
  5. Quantity Adjectives
  6. Numeral Adjectives
  7. Proper Adjectives
  8. Distributive Adjectives

1. Quality Adjectives (Kata Sifat Kualitas)

Quality Adjectives disebut juga kata sifat yang menunjukkan bentuk, ukutan, kondisi, warna, bahan, fungsi dll dari kata benda atau kata ganti.

Posisi Quality Adjectives

a. Attributives

Attributive Adjectives diletakkan sebelum kata benda atau diantara article dan kata benda.

  • I can see a beautiful girl.
  • I have got a new book.

b. Predicatives

Predicative Adjectives dibagi lagi menjadi:

1. Subject Complement

  • Your daughter is pretty.
  • She is very beautiful.
  • The book is new.

2. Object Complement

  • He made his wife happy.
  • I consider him foolish.
  • She pushed the window open

C. Appositives

Appositive Adjectives biasanya mengikuti kata bendanya dan menjelaskannya. Jenis ini terbagi menjadi dua bagian, yaitu:

1. Restrictive

  • A teacher untrained in Phonetics is as useless as a doctor untrained in anatomy.

2. Non-restrictive

  • A blacksmith, swarthy and muscular, was leisurely working the long handle of his bellow

2. Possessive Adjectives (Kata Sifat Kepunyaan)

Possessive adjectives terdiri dari my, our, their, your, his, her, its.

1. Sebagai Subjective Complement

  • What is your phone number?
  • That us my house.

2. Sebagai Object

  • I can’t complete my assignment because I don’t have the text book.
  • The bakery sold hisfavourite type of bread.

3. Sebagai Object of Prepositions

  • After many years, she returned to her homeland.
  • They give everything to their mother.

3. Demonstrative Adjectives (Kata Sifat Penunjuk)

Kata Sifat ini terbagi menjadi 2 bagian, yaitu:

1. Definite, yang terdiri dari this, that, these, those.

  • This book is mine
  • Those pictures are beautiful.

2. Indefinite, yang terdiri dari another, the other, an, a, some, dll.

  • A teacher will come to teach us today.
  • They can eat the other apples.

4. Interrogative Adjectives (Kata Sifat Tanya)

Kata sifat jenis ini terdiri dari:

a. Sebagai Subject

  • What color is your house?
  • Whose book is this?

b. Sebagai Object

  • I don’t know what problem she is talking about.
  • They never question which part of the novel will be summarized.

c. Sebagai Object of Prepositions

  • With whose father do you speak?
  • In which hotel do you like to stay?

5. Quantity Adjectives (Kata Sifat Kuantitas)

Kata-kata yang termasuk dalam jenis ini adalah much, some, enough, little, half, any, dll.

  • He ate little bread.
  • Will you have some tea?

6. Numeral Adjectives (Kata Sifat Penomoran)

Kata Sifat jenis ini terbagi atas:

1. Definite, yang menunjukkan jumlah yang pasti dari suatu kata benda atau kata ganti.

a. Cardinal

  • We have three cars at home.
  • You can take twelve books.

b. Ordinal

  • Our class is in the third floor.
  • They will depart on the second flight.

c. Multiplications

  • The rooms have a single bed.
  • There is a pair of shoes under the table.

2. Indefinite

Kata-kata yang termasuk dalam jenis ini adalah all, some, enough, many, dll.

  • Many people believe that corporations are under-taxed
  • I will buy some pens
  • I am waiting for some friends here.

7. Proper Adjectives (Kata Sifat Nama Diri)

Proper Nouns

England
Holland
Indonesia, dll

Proper Adjectives

  • English, Dutch, Indonesian, dll
    • English people like drinking tea.
    • Arabian people like eating dates.

8. Distributive Adjectives (Kata Sifat Distributif)

Kata-kata yang sering dipakai adalah each, every, neither, either.

  • She reads every book in the library
  • I can choose either red or yellow car.

Order of Adjectives (Susunan Kata Sifat)

Sebelum mempelajari bagian ini, coba Anda pilih mana frasa yang benar dari 2 frasa yang ada di bawah ini.

  • Perempuan tua yang kaya, atau
  • Perempuan kaya yang tua.

Dalam bahasa Indonesia, kedua frasa di atas, hamper tidak ada masalah. Namun dalam bahasa Inggris, salah satu diantaranya tidak sesuai dengan standard tata bahasa. Mari kita ingat urutan kata sifat yang benar di depan kata benda.

DOSASCOMP

D = Determiner (the, a, an, some, dll)
O = Opinion (beautiful, rich, diligent, dll)
S = Size (big, small, long, dll)
A = Age (young, old, new)
S = Shape (round, fat, thin, dll)
C = Color (white, yellow, red, dll)
O = Origin (Italy, Indonesia, Malaysia, dll)
M = Material (rubber, plastic, cotton, dll)
P = Purpose (tennis, school, dll)

Mari kita urutkan kata-kata sifat yang ada dalam frasa di atas:

  • Perempuan = Kata benda (letaknya terakhir – No. 10 setelah purpose)
  • Kaya = Kata Sifat – Opinion (No. 2)
  • Tua = Kata Sifat – Age (no. 4)

Jadi urutan yang benar adalah 2, 4, 10
Kaya, tua, perempuan = Rich old lady

  • I have a beautiful large house.
  • She has an expensive tennis racket.

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